Razi International Medical Journal 2023-05-30T14:50:06+00:00 Prof. Dr. Bilal Ahmad Rahimi Open Journal Systems <p>The <em><strong>Razi International Medical Journal</strong></em> founded in 2021 is a peer-reviewed scholarly journal from Afghanistan that aims to impact public health and global health and distributed internationally. The journal is produced and published in electronic and paper-based form biannually, and there is no <a title="article publishing charge" href="">article publishing charge</a> (APCs). The journal's scope is on:</p> <ul> <li><strong>Global Health</strong></li> <li><strong>Public Health</strong></li> </ul> <p>The Journal publishes research articles, review articles, correspondence, commentary, perspective, letter to editor, and editorials.</p> <p> </p> <p><br /><strong>Note:</strong> The <em>Razi International Medical Journal</em> (RIMJ) is published by the <a title="Afghanistan Center for Epidemiological Studies" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Afghanistan Center for Epidemiological Studies</a> and should be distinguished from the<em> Razi Journal of Medical Sciences</em> (RJMS) published by <em>Iran University of Medical Sciences</em>.</p> <p> </p> Effects of Armed Conflicts and Insecurity on the Mental Health of Nigerians 2022-09-06T17:46:12+00:00 Victor Oluwafemi Femi-Lawal Yetunde Nofisat Kabiawu Gideon Godspromise Obinna Opeyemi Fortunate Oladeru Samuel Oluwatofunmi Aliu Fahad Umar Basa Sulaiman Balkisu Blessing Ayomide Solaru <p>N/A</p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Razi International Medical Journal Cervical Cancer and its Vaccine Trends in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A highlight 2022-12-22T18:26:44+00:00 Fatima Yasin Qasim Mehmood Sidra Imtiaz Irfan Ullah Sufyan Razak <p>N/A</p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Razi International Medical Journal Management capacity in the Afghan Ministry of Public Health pre-Taliban: A mixed-methods study of political and socio-cultural issues 2023-01-04T20:39:01+00:00 Shaqaieq Ashrafi Dost Rachel Arnold Van Teijlingen Edwin <p><strong>Background: </strong>The importance of management capacity in the health sector has been increasingly recognized. After decades of conflict one of the main obstacles facing the Afghan health system was the limited ‘management/leadership capacity.’ To effectively build capacity it is important to understand the underlying issues.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>: </strong>A mixed-methods study, conducted in 2017/18, before the Taliban takeover, was carried out in all directorates of the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) to explore the management/leadership capacity. Interviews were conducted with 12 staff; data were analyzed thematically. A quantitative survey was also conducted covering directors of 30 departments, it was analyzed using descriptive statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Our research identified four main factors in the MoPH affecting management and leadership capacity; insufficient support, uncoordinated capacity building, political and socio-cultural issues, and lack of transparency/accountability. This paper focuses on one aspect - the perceptions of the MoPH employees about the impact of political/socio-cultural issues on capacity. Overall, management capacity was weak. Key appointments including directors were subject to political interference and many directors appointed by politicians lacked the required management skills. Consequently, those directors were not able to support employees appropriately or to create a healthy work environment. Overall, there were strong socio-cultural influences such as nepotism and favoritism. Due to these problems employees believed they were not treated consistently or fairly. This was compounded by overly complex administrative systems.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Being able to strengthen management and leadership capacity in the Afghan health system depends largely on the implementation of (existing) anti-corruption strategies.</p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Razi International Medical Journal Knowledge, and practice of women on breast cancer in Herat, Afghanistan: A cross-sectional study 2023-01-16T05:30:16+00:00 Fariba Baha Goodness Ogeyi Odey Marjan Yousufi Yasir Ahmed Mohammed Elhadi Adina Rahmani Elhama Noorzad Farooq Ahmad Siddiqy Paolo Miguel Manalang Vicerra Don Eliseo Lucero-Prisno III <p><strong>Background: </strong>Breast cancer prevalence is observed to be higher in developed economies, but the mortality rates due to the said disease tend to be similar or even higher among lower-income countries. Afghanistan is among these countries where breast cancer mortality has been predominant among the female population. This may be related late diagnosis and the presentation of the cancer at much later stages.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional study was conducted using a survey questionnaire administered from June 2021 to July 2021 among women living in Herat province of Afghanistan. It evaluated the participants’ knowledge and practice towards breast cancer. A total of 534 women answered the survey. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS software.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Lower level of knowledge about breast cancer and the limitations to the practice of breast self-examination (BSE) were found to be associated with such late detection and treatment. Using data collected in Herat Province of Afghanistan, this study examined the individual level sociodemographic factors related with the level of knowledge about breast cancer and also with the practice of BSE. It was found that 44% of the study sample of 534 women had high knowledge level. There were fewer still who performed BSE at about 12% of the respondents. Further examination showed that lower education attainment, albeit illiteracy, and the employment status were correlated with knowledge and practice surrounding breast cancer.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This entails the need to formulate programs targeting the specific needs of women with lower socioeconomic status to build capacity toward their health and wellbeing.</p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Razi International Medical Journal Sociodemographic factors associated with knowledge and practice on cervical cancer among female residents of Herat, Afghanistan: A cross-sectional study 2023-03-26T08:18:35+00:00 Laila Qanawizada Mahsa Ahmadi <p><strong>Background: </strong>According to the World Health Organization, cervical cancer is the “fourth most common cancer in women”; around 311,000 women globally lost their lives to cervical cancer in 2018. The purpose of the current study is to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of women in Afghanistan regarding cervical cancer.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2022 to November 2022 among female residents aged at least 10 years old living in Herat province of Afghanistan. A total of 1000 female in Herat were asked, and about 441 agreed to participate in this study (response rate=44.1%).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>One-fifth of the participants were adolescents and were 10-17 years old (20%). Almost three out of four participants had no education (73.0%). Less than one-third of the participants were single (30.4%). Almost half of the participants had low knowledge on cervical cancer. Participants residency, occupation, and monthly family income were significantly associated with knowledge of cervical cancer.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The observations here have shown there is space for development surrounding knowledge and practices about cervical cancer. The study sample have demonstrated that the participation of healthcare providers and organizations on awareness of people about cervical cancer was low compared to other sources of information. What underscores these aspects of shortcomings in health information and practices is the disparities in residency, employment, and monthly family income among women.</p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Razi International Medical Journal Mental health literacy among Afghan adults: A community-based cross-sectional survey study in Herat city 2023-04-14T11:23:37+00:00 Abdul Qadim Mohammadi Laura Johnston Kartikeya Ojha <p><strong>Background: </strong>Health literacy has been defined as the ability to gain access to, understand, and use information in ways which promote and maintain good health. The significance of mental health literacy (MHL)is evolving as a modifiable contributing factor to mental health. This study was undertaken to assess the awareness and attitudes of Afghans on mental disorders.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional survey was administered in August 2022 among Afghans (N=768) living in the Herat province of Afghanistan. The survey examined knowledge and attitude of participants on mental disorders.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Generally, most of the participants (99.1%) had poor mental health literacy. 99.4% of participants with an age range of 36-90 years had poor mental health literacy. Almost three-quarter of the participants had poor knowledge of the ability to recognize disorders (72.5%). Less than one-thirds of the participants had good knowledge of where to seek information (29.4%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Mental health literacy rate was found very low among Afghan population. Socio-economic variables found significantly associated with MHL was educational level, economic status, and employment status. Considering the high prevalence of mental disorders in Afghanistan, the government and related non-governmental organizations should implement awareness campaign to increase the knowledge of Afghan people on mental disorders.</p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Razi International Medical Journal IUD-Related knowledge and practice among women in Afghanistan: A cross-sectional survey study 2023-04-22T16:23:23+00:00 Parwin Ahmadi Mahsa Ahmadi Shashank Timilsina <p><strong>Background: </strong>Intrauterine Devices (IUDs) are T-shaped devices that can be inserted into the uterus to provide contraception. IUDs are a form of long-term contraception that are effective birth control methods with few adverse effects. The purpose of this study is to reveal the current baseline for the knowledge and practice of Afghan women toward intrauterine devices and identify the related sociodemographic factors.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 2022 to December 2022 among married women aged at least 18 years old living in Herat province of Afghanistan. A total of 1000 females in Herat were asked, and 411 agreed to participate in this study (response rate=41.1%).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Only one-fourth of the participants responded that health care workers are their primary source of information on health issues (25.3%). More than nine-tenths of the participants had poor knowledge level of IUD (91.5%) while only one-twentieth of participants were using IUD (5.8%). Number of children, education level, occupation, and economic status were found to be significantly associated with participants’ knowledge on IUD.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Government and health organizations should provide trainings focused on increase of knowledge on IUD and its related issues. The programs should also persuade women to use IUD and its safety. Training should be targeted not only to women, but to family practice physicians, nurse and midwifery practitioners and other providers who offer family planning counseling and services.</p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Razi International Medical Journal